As you walk the lively streets of Ho Chi Minh City, you realise space on the ground is sparse.
Clothing shops, souvenir merchants and food vendors flood the city’s footpaths and protrude onto its roads.
But often, it’s an equally bustling scene when you look towards the clouds.
With a population count that’s at around 8 million, and constantly on the increase, uncontrolled urban sprawl is taking place, and a major problem for city planners.
Sometimes the best way to go – is up.
It’s not unusual for existing complexes to be consolidated, with the homes of many locals lying above the shops that line the roads.
There aren’t multitudes of skyscrapers like that of Singapore or Hong Kong, but the residential complexes help give the city a distinct and active atmosphere.
Parks may be scant on the ground, but personal gardens flourish on balconys and crawl up concrete walls.
These pictures from Kai Hayes aim to highlight the complexity, and beauty of the city, high above the street level.